From trade in goods then trade in services, we now have digital trade. While there is no universally accepted definition, digital trade is generally understood to cover all cross-border resident/non-resident transactions that are either digitally ordered, online platform enabled, and/or digitally delivered.
There are plenty of reasons why intelligence professionals are alarmed by Huawei’s involvement in our 5G networks, particularly, the close relationship between Huawei and a Chinese government with a history of cyberespionage, writes Richard Fadden.
Trends like power train electrification and autonomous driving are causing a major structural change in vehicle manufacturing. This study will analyse to what extent German vehicle manu-facturers are ready to cope with these challenges.
Since North Korean leader Kim Jong Un took power, the North Korean economy has undergone significant changes in many aspects. At the core of these changes in the economy in the Kim Jong Un era is the official approval of state-owned businesses’ participation in the market economy and the adjustment of the roles of the state and business, both changes that were institutionalized through revisions of economic laws such as the People’s Economic Planning Act and Trade Act.
While there has long been a trend towards large companies becoming dominant through takeovers, in Germany and internationally an opposite trend has recently set in: the breaking up of companies as a result of sales, IPOs or spin-offs is clearly on the increase.
International tax competition has been an emerging issue for years. There are various political approaches to agree on common standards on a supranational level. In 2013, the OECD presented a first draft of its action plan against Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS), which has been eventually finalized.
As China's economic development enters a new normal, accelerating the supply-side structural reform has become an important task and main axis of its economic development.
Intellectual property protection has a positive effect on all four economic indicators: gross domestic product (GDP), trade, foreign direct investments (FDI) and the level of innovation. The confidence it gives investors leads to inflows of foreign capital that promote technology competition, which in turn fosters innovation. As a result, higher quality goods and service are produced within the country more efficiently.